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Knowledge and skills covered

Below is a list of the knowledge and skills covered in PSHE in Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2. These are from the PSHE Association and please note that these are taught at an age appropriate level and we keep in mind the children we are teaching and tailor our lessons to suit them.


The knowledge and skills here are organised into themes, however at Church Lench C E First School we teach our PSHE lessons around overarching questions (see how we teach PSHE at Church Lench C E First School page for more information on this) but the knowledge and skills shown here are interwoven into these questions.






Healthy lifestyles (physical wellbeing)



  • H1. about what keeping healthy means; different ways to keep healthy
  • H2. about foods that support good health and the risks of eating too much sugar
  • H3. about how physical activity helps us to stay healthy; and ways to be physically active everyday
  • H4. about why sleep is important and different ways to rest and relax
  • H5. simple hygiene routines that can stop germs from spreading
  • H6. that medicines (including vaccinations and immunisations and those that support allergic reactions) can help people to stay healthy
  • H7. about dental care and visiting the dentist; how to brush teeth correctly; food and drink that support dental health
  • H8. how to keep safe in the sun and protect skin from sun damage
  • H9. about different ways to learn and play; recognising the importance of knowing when to take a break from time online or TV
  • H10. about the people who help us to stay physically healthy


  • H1. how to make informed decisions about health
  • H2. about the elements of a balanced, healthy lifestyle
  • H3. about choices that support a healthy lifestyle, and recognise what might influence these
  • H4. how to recognise that habits can have both positive and negative effects on a healthy lifestyle
  • H5. about what good physical health means; how to recognise early signs of physical illness
  • H6. about what constitutes a healthy diet; how to plan healthy meals; benefits to health and wellbeing of eating nutritionally rich foods; risks associated with not eating a healthy diet including obesity and tooth decay.
  • H7. how regular (daily/weekly) exercise benefits mental and physical health (e.g. walking or cycling to school, daily active mile); recognise opportunities to be physically active and some of the risks associated with an inactive lifestyle
  • H8. about how sleep contributes to a healthy lifestyle; routines that support good quality sleep; the effects of lack of sleep on the body, feelings, behaviour and ability to learn
  • H9. that bacteria and viruses can affect health; how everyday hygiene routines can limit the spread of infection; the wider importance of personal hygiene and how to maintain it
  • H10. how medicines, when used responsibly, contribute to health; that some diseases can be prevented by vaccinations and immunisations; how allergies can be managed
  • H11. how to maintain good oral hygiene (including correct brushing and flossing); why regular visits to the dentist are essential; the impact of lifestyle choices on dental care (e.g. sugar consumption/acidic drinks such as fruit juices, smoothies and fruit teas; the effects of smoking)
  • H12. about the benefits of sun exposure and risks of overexposure; how to keep safe from sun damage and sun/heat stroke and reduce the risk of skin cancer
  • H13. about the benefits of the internet; the importance of balancing time online with other activities; strategies for managing time online
  • H14. how and when to seek support, including which adults to speak to in and outside school, if they are worried about their health


Mental health



  • H11. about different feelings that humans can experience
  • H12. how to recognise and name different feelings
  • H13. how feelings can affect people’s bodies and how they behave
  • H14. how to recognise what others might be feeling
  • H15. to recognise that not everyone feels the same at the same time, or feels the same about the same things
  • H16. about ways of sharing feelings; a range of words to describe feelings
  • H17. about things that help people feel good (e.g. playing outside, doing things they enjoy, spending time with family, getting enough sleep)
  • H18. different things they can do to manage big feelings, to help calm themselves down and/or change their mood when they don’t feel good
  • H19. to recognise when they need help with feelings; that it is important to ask for help with feelings; and how to ask for it
  • H20. about change and loss (including death); to identify feelings associated with this; to recognise what helps people to feel better


  • H15. that mental health, just like physical health, is part of daily life; the importance of taking care of mental health
  • H16. about strategies and behaviours that support mental health — including how good quality sleep, physical exercise/time outdoors, being involved in community groups, doing things for others, clubs, and activities, hobbies and spending time with family and friends can support mental health and wellbeing
  • H17. to recognise that feelings can change over time and range in intensity
  • H18. about everyday things that affect feelings and the importance of expressing feelings
  • H19. a varied vocabulary to use when talking about feelings; about how to express feelings in different ways;
  • H20. strategies to respond to feelings, including intense or conflicting feelings; how to manage and respond to feelings appropriately and proportionately in different situations
  • H21. to recognise warning signs about mental health and wellbeing and how to seek support for themselves and others
  • H22. to recognise that anyone can experience mental ill health; that most difficulties can be resolved with help and support; and that it is important to discuss feelings with a trusted adult
  • H23. about change and loss, including death, and how these can affect feelings; ways of expressing and managing grief and bereavement
  • H24. problem-solving strategies for dealing with emotions, challenges and change, including the transition to new schools


Ourselves, growing and changing



  • H21. to recognise what makes them special
  • H22. to recognise the ways in which we are all unique
  • H23. to identify what they are good at, what they like and dislike
  • H24. how to manage when finding things difficult
  • H25. to name the main parts of the body including external genitalia (e.g. vulva, vagina, penis, testicles)
  • H26. about growing and changing from young to old and how people’s needs change
  • H27. about preparing to move to a new class/year group



  • H25. about personal identity; what contributes to who we are (e.g. ethnicity, family, gender, faith, culture, hobbies, likes/dislikes)
  • H26. that for some people gender identity does not correspond with their biological sex
  • H27. to recognise their individuality and personal qualities
  • H28. to identify personal strengths, skills, achievements and interests and how these contribute to a sense of self-worth
  • H29. about how to manage setbacks/perceived failures, including how to re-frame unhelpful thinking
  • H30. to identify the external genitalia and internal reproductive organs in males and females and how the process of puberty relates to human reproduction
  • H31. about the physical and emotional changes that happen when approaching and during puberty (including menstruation, key facts about the menstrual cycle and menstrual wellbeing, erections and wet dreams)
  • H32. about how hygiene routines change during the time of puberty, the importance of keeping clean and how to maintain personal hygiene
  • H33. about the processes of reproduction and birth as part of the human life cycle; how babies are conceived and born (and that there are ways to prevent a baby being made); how babies need to be cared for
  • H34. about where to get more information, help and advice about growing and changing, especially about puberty
  • H35. about the new opportunities and responsibilities that increasing independence may bring
  • H36. strategies to manage transitions between classes and key stages


Keeping safe



  • H28. about rules and age restrictions that keep us safe
  • H29. to recognise risk in simple everyday situations and what action to take to minimise harm
  • H30. about how to keep safe at home (including around electrical appliances) and fire safety (e.g. not playing with matches and lighters)
  • H31. that household products (including medicines) can be harmful if not used correctly
  • H32. ways to keep safe in familiar and unfamiliar environments (e.g. beach, shopping centre, park, swimming pool, on the street) and how to cross the road safely
  • H33. about the people whose job it is to help keep us safe
  • H34. basic rules to keep safe online, including what is meant by personal information and what should be kept private; the importance of telling a trusted adult if they come across something that scares them
  • H35. about what to do if there is an accident and someone is hurt
  • H36. how to get help in an emergency (how to dial 999 and what to say)



  • H37. reasons for following and complying with regulations and restrictions (including age restrictions); how they promote personal safety and wellbeing with reference to social media, television programmes, films, games and online gaming
  • H38. how to predict, assess and manage risk in different situations
  • H39. about hazards (including fire risks) that may cause harm, injury or risk in the home and what they can do reduce risks and keep safe
  • H40. about the importance of taking medicines correctly and using household products safely, (e.g. following instructions carefully)
  • H41. strategies for keeping safe in the local environment or unfamiliar places (rail, water, road) and firework safety; safe use of digital devices when out and about
  • H42. about the importance of keeping personal information private; strategies for keeping safe online, including how to manage requests for personal information or images of themselves and others; what to do if frightened or worried by something seen or read online and how to report concerns, inappropriate content and contact
  • H43. about what is meant by first aid; basic techniques for dealing with common injuries
  • H44. how to respond and react in an emergency situation; how to identify situations that may require the emergency services; know how to contact them and what to say


Drugs, alcohol and tobacco



  • H37. about things that people can put into their body or on their skin; how these can affect how people feel



  • H46. about the risks and effects of legal drugs common to everyday life (e.g. cigarettes, e-cigarettes/vaping, alcohol and medicines) and their impact on health; recognise that drug use can become a habit which can be difficult to break
  • H47. to recognise that there are laws surrounding the use of legal drugs and that some drugs are illegal to own, use and give to others
  • H48. about why people choose to use or not use drugs (including nicotine, alcohol and medicines);
  • H49. about the mixed messages in the media about drugs, including alcohol and smoking/vaping




Core Theme 2: Relationships


KS 2


Families and close positive relationships



  • R1. about the roles different people (e.g. acquaintances, friends and relatives) play in our lives
  • R2. to identify the people who love and care for them and what they do to help them feel cared for
  • R3. about different types of families including those that may be different to their own
  • R4. to identify common features of family life
  • R5. that it is important to tell someone (such as their teacher) if something about their family makes them unhappy or worried



  • R1. to recognise that there are different types of relationships (e.g. friendships, family relationships, romantic relationships, online relationships)
  • R2. that people may be attracted to someone emotionally and romantically; that people may be attracted to someone of the same sex or different sex to them; that gender identity and sexual orientation are different
  • R3. about marriage and civil partnership as a legal declaration of commitment made by two adults who love and care for each other, which is intended to be lifelong
  • R4. that forcing anyone to marry against their will is a crime; that help and support is available to people who are worried about this for themselves or others
  • R5. that people who love and care for each other can be in a committed relationship (e.g. marriage), living together, but may also live apart
  • R6. that a feature of positive family life is caring relationships; about the different ways in which people care for one another
  • R7. to recognise and respect that there are different types of family structure (including single parents, same-sex parents, step-parents, blended families, foster parents); that families of all types can give family members love, security and stability
  • R8. to recognise other shared characteristics of healthy family life, including commitment, care, spending time together; being there for each other in times of difficulty
  • R9. how to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice





  • R6. about how people make friends and what makes a good friendship
  • R7. about how to recognise when they or someone else feels lonely and what to do
  • R8. simple strategies to resolve arguments between friends positively
  • R9. how to ask for help if a friendship is making them feel unhappy



  • R10. about the importance of friendships; strategies for building positive friendships; how positive friendships support wellbeing
  • R11. what constitutes a positive healthy friendship (e.g. mutual respect, trust, truthfulness, loyalty, kindness, generosity, sharing interests and experiences, support with problems and difficulties); that the same principles apply to online friendships as to face-to-face relationships
  • R12. to recognise what it means to ‘know someone online’ and how this differs from knowing someone face-to-face; risks of communicating online with others not known face-to-face
  • R13. the importance of seeking support if feeling lonely or excluded
  • R14. that healthy friendships make people feel included; recognise when others may feel lonely or excluded; strategies for how to include them
  • R15. strategies for recognising and managing peer influence and a desire for peer approval in friendships; to recognise the effect of online actions on others
  • R16. how friendships can change over time, about making new friends and the benefits of having different types of friends
  • R17. that friendships have ups and downs; strategies to resolve disputes and reconcile differences positively and safely
  • R18. to recognise if a friendship (online or offline) is making them feel unsafe or uncomfortable; how to manage this and ask for support if necessary


Managing hurtful behaviour and bullying



  • R10. that bodies and feelings can be hurt by words and actions; that people can say hurtful things online
  • R11. about how people may feel if they experience hurtful behaviour or bullying
  • R12. that hurtful behaviour (offline and online) including teasing, name-calling, bullying and deliberately excluding others is not acceptable; how to report bullying; the importance of telling a trusted adult


  • R19. about the impact of bullying, including offline and online, and the consequences of hurtful behaviour
  • R20. strategies to respond to hurtful behaviour experienced or witnessed, offline and online (including teasing, name-calling, bullying, trolling, harassment or the deliberate excluding of others); how to report concerns and get support
  • R21. about discrimination: what it means and how to challenge it


Safe relationships



  • R13. to recognise that some things are private and the importance of respecting privacy; that parts of their body covered by underwear are private
  • R14. that sometimes people may behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not
  • R15. how to respond safely to adults they don’t know
  • R16. about how to respond if physical contact makes them feel uncomfortable or unsafe
  • R17. about knowing there are situations when they should ask for permission and also when their permission should be sought
  • R18. about the importance of not keeping adults’ secrets (only happy surprises that others will find out about eventually)
  • R19. basic techniques for resisting pressure to do something they don’t want to do and which may make them unsafe
  • R20. what to do if they feel unsafe or worried for themselves or others; who to ask for help and vocabulary to use when asking for help; importance of keeping trying until they are heard


  • R22. about privacy and personal boundaries; what is appropriate in friendships and wider relationships (including online)
  • R23. about why someone may behave differently online, including pretending to be someone they are not; strategies for recognising risks, harmful content and contact; how to report concerns
  • R24. how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter (in all contexts including online) whom they do not know
  • R25. recognise different types of physical contact; what is acceptable and unacceptable; strategies to respond to unwanted physical contact
  • R26. about seeking and giving permission (consent) in different situations
  • R27. about keeping something confidential or secret, when this should (e.g. a birthday surprise that others will find out about) or should not be agreed to, and when it is right to break a confidence or share a secret
  • R28. how to recognise pressure from others to do something unsafe or that makes them feel uncomfortable and strategies for managing this
  • R29. where to get advice and report concerns if worried about their own or someone else’s personal safety (including online)


Respecting self and others



  • R21. about what is kind and unkind behaviour, and how this can affect others
  • R22. about how to treat themselves and others with respect; how to be polite and courteous
  • R23. to recognise the ways in which they are the same and different to others
  • R24. how to listen to other people and play and work cooperatively
  • R25. how to talk about and share their opinions on things that matter to them


  • R30. that personal behaviour can affect other people; to recognise and model respectful behaviour online
  • R31. to recognise the importance of self-respect and how this can affect their thoughts and feelings about themselves; that everyone, including them, should expect to be treated politely and with respect by others (including when online and/or anonymous) in school and in wider society; strategies to improve or support courteous, respectful relationships
  • R32. about respecting the differences and similarities between people and recognising what they have in common with others e.g. physically, in personality or background
  • R33. to listen and respond respectfully to a wide range of people, including those whose traditions, beliefs and lifestyle are different to their own
  • R34. how to discuss and debate topical issues, respect other people’s point of view and constructively challenge those they disagree with



Core Theme 3: Living in the Wider World





Shared responsibilities



  • L1. about what rules are, why they are needed, and why different rules are needed for different situations
  • L2. how people and other living things have different needs; about the responsibilities of caring for them
  • L3. about things they can do to help look after their environment


  • L1. to recognise reasons for rules and laws; consequences of not adhering to rules and laws
  • L2. to recognise there are human rights, that are there to protect everyone
  • L3. about the relationship between rights and responsibilities
  • L4. the importance of having compassion towards others; shared responsibilities we all have for caring for other people and living things; how to show care and concern for others
  • L5. ways of carrying out shared responsibilities for protecting the environment in school and at home; how everyday choices can affect the environment (e.g. reducing, reusing, recycling; food choices)





  • L4. about the different groups they belong to
  • L5. about the different roles and responsibilities people have in their community
  • L6. to recognise the ways they are the same as, and different to, other people


  • L6. about the different groups that make up their community; what living in a community means
  • L7. to value the different contributions that people and groups make to the community
  • L8. about diversity: what it means; the benefits of living in a diverse community; about valuing diversity within communities
  • L9. about stereotypes; how they can negatively influence behaviours and attitudes towards others; strategies for challenging stereotypes
  • L10. about prejudice; how to recognise behaviours/actions which discriminate against others; ways of responding to it if witnessed or experienced


Media literacy & digital resilience



  • L7. about how the internet and digital devices can be used safely to find things out and to communicate with others
  • L8. about the role of the internet in everyday life
  • L9. that not all information seen online is true


  • L11. recognise ways in which the internet and social media can be used both positively and negatively
  • L12. how to assess the reliability of sources of information online; and how to make safe, reliable choices from search results
  • L13. about some of the different ways information and data is shared and used online, including for commercial purposes
  • L14. about how information on the internet is ranked, selected and targeted at specific individuals and groups; that connected devices can share information
  • L15. recognise things appropriate to share and things that should not be shared on social media; rules surrounding distribution of images
  • L16. about how text and images in the media and on social media can be manipulated or invented; strategies to evaluate the reliability of sources and identify misinformation


Economic wellbeing: Money



  • L10. what money is; forms that money comes in; that money comes from different sources
  • L11. that people make different choices about how to save and spend money
  • L12. about the difference between needs and wants; that sometimes people may not always be able to have the things they want
  • L13. that money needs to be looked after; different ways of doing this



  • L17. about the different ways to pay for things and the choices people have about this
  • L18. to recognise that people have different attitudes towards saving and spending money; what influences people’s decisions; what makes something ‘good value for money’
  • L19. that people’s spending decisions can affect others and the environment (e.g. Fair trade, buying single-use plastics, or giving to charity)
  • L20. to recognise that people make spending decisions based on priorities, needs and wants
  • L21. different ways to keep track of money
  • L22. about risks associated with money (e.g. money can be won, lost or stolen) and ways of keeping money safe
  • L23. about the risks involved in gambling; different ways money can be won or lost through gambling-related activities and their impact on health, wellbeing and future aspirations
  • L24. to identify the ways that money can impact on people’s feelings and emotions


Economic wellbeing: Aspirations, work and career



L14. that everyone has different strengths

L15. that jobs help people to earn money to pay for things

L16. different jobs that people they know or people who work in the community do

L17. about some of the strengths and interests someone might need to do different jobs



L25. to recognise positive things about themselves and their achievements; set goals to help achieve personal outcomes

L26. that there is a broad range of different jobs/careers that people can have; that people often have more than one career/type of job during their life

L27. about stereotypes in the workplace and that a person’s career aspirations should not be limited by them

L28. about what might influence people’s decisions about a job or career (e.g. personal interests and values, family connections to certain trades or businesses, strengths and qualities, ways in which stereotypical assumptions can deter people from aspiring to certain jobs)

L29. that some jobs are paid more than others and money is one factor which may influence a person’s job or career choice; that people may choose to do voluntary work which is unpaid

L30. about some of the skills that will help them in their future careers e.g. teamwork, communication and negotiation

L31. to identify the kind of job that they might like to do when they are older

L32. to recognise a variety of routes into careers (e.g. college, apprenticeship, university)